Determination of the effect of high energy ultrasound application in tempering on flour quality of wheat
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This research has been carried out under laboratory conditions. To determine the effect of soaking with ultrasound application to dampen hard wheat samples at one stage in tempering process was the prior goal. In the experiments, Bezostaya-1 wheat samples in different hardness levels (45, 65 and 75%) are used as material. The milling quality and qualitative properties of the flour were investigated. Results compared with the classic tempering process which has two stages tempering for hard and semi-hard wheat at the industrial applications. Ultrasonication of the samples has been applied by a probe-type ultrasound device. Because of experimental deviations, inevitable positive effect of ultrasonic tempering had not seen in the quality parameters of milling experiments like flour yield and energy consumption. But tempering with ultrasound application increased the speed of water intake and diffusion into the grain center. In the study, the wet gluten rates of the flour obtained by classical tempering process were 24.52% and the gluten index rate was 87.17%, while the results obtained by ultrasonic tempering were 22.70% and 93.33%, respectively. Thus it raised flour quality a little, possibly, due to low amount but better quality gluten coming from central endosperm in the flour obtained. Other analysis results in flour showed significant differences in some values of classical and ultrasonic tempering processes. As a result of ultrasonic tempering, the fineness rate (granulation) increased from 73.27% to 79.77%, ash content decreased from 0.61% to 0.55%, Zeleny sedimentation value decreased from 25.0 mL to 23.67 mL, flour stability increased from 9.76 min to 12.06 min, water absorption 59.1% decreased from 61.28%, softening resistance increased from 400.33 BU to 504.50 BU, maximum resistance increased from 420.50 BU to 536.16 BU. In bread trials, bread volume increased from 328.3 mL to 347.3 mL, and specific volume increased from 2.39 mL / g to 2.57 mL / g. These issues have been confirmed by some analysis such as fine granulation, low ash content, high gluten index, some farinogram, and extensigram properties, and finally better performance in bread making was observed.