Design and Manufacture of a Multiband Rectangular Spiral-Shaped Microstrip Antenna Using EM-Driven and Machine Learning
This paper presents a multiband rectangular microstrip antenna using spiral-shaped configurations. The antenna has been designed by combining two configurations of microstrip and spiral with consideration of careful selection of the substrate material, the dimension of the rectangular microstrip, the distance between the turned spiral, and the number of turns of the spiral. The efficiency and accuracy have been improved using machine learning algorithms as well. Machine learning has been studied to model the proposed antenna based on the performance requirements, which requires a sufficient training data to improve the accuracy. Three different machine learning models are applied to improve the accuracy and generalization performance and compared to simulation and measurement results. Simulation, measurement, and machine learning results confirm that the proposed antenna is a new electrically small and operating over a wide range of high-frequency bands between 1 GHz-4 GHz. Machine learning models have the best prediction ability with a mean square error (MSE) of 0.03, and 0.05. The antenna structure and size are compatible and suitable for several multi-band wireless mobile systems operating in L-band and S-band. The results, such as directivity, Half-Power Beamwidth, Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR), and S-parameter curves, are analysed and compared with the numerical formulation for both spiral and microstrip antennas.