Sınıf yönetiminde öğrenci motivasyonu ve motivasyonu etkileyen etmenler
AuthorVatansever Bayraktar, Hatice
MetadataShow full item record
Bu çalışmada sınıf yönetiminde önemli bir yeri olan motivasyon kavramı, motivasyon sürecinin işleyişi, motivasyonun özellikleri, sınıf yönetiminde öğrenci motivasyonu, öğrenci motivasyonunu etkileyen etmenler konularına ilgili alanyazın doğrultusunda yer verilmiştir. Araştırmada nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden döküman incelemesi yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma için konuyla ilgili kaynaklara ve verilere ulaşılarak alan yazın taraması yapılmıştır. Araştırma ile ilgili kitap, tez ve raporlar incelenmiş elde edilen veriler sistematik bir biçimde bütünleştirilmeye çalışılmıştır. Motivasyon kavramını, davranışa enerji ve yön veren ve bireylerin belirli amaçlara yönelmesini sağlayan güçler olarak tanımlamak mümkündür. Motivasyon kavramının temelinde davranışların tetiklenmesi, yönlendirilmesi ve sürdürülmesi yatar. Motivasyonun temel amacı, baskı ve zorlama olmadan bireylerin istekli, verimli ve etkin çalışmalarını sağlamaktır. İnsanlar temel beklentileri karşılandığı sürece daha verimli çalışacak, motivasyonları da yüksek olacaktır. Motivasyon ile performans arasında doğru orantı vardır. Öğrencinin motivasyonu ne kadar yüksekse, performans da o derece yüksek olacaktır. Sınıf ortamında etkili ve verimli öğrenme-öğretme sürecinin gerçekleştirilebilmesi için öğretmenin planlı ve programlı olması, öğretim ortamında ilgili yöntem, teknik, araç-gereç ve materyalleri etkili şekilde kullanması, bilgi donanımının iyi olması, iyi bir rehber olmasının yanısıra öncelikle öğrencilerin ilgili konuya motivasyonunu sağlamak ve bunu ders boyunca sürdürebilmek önem taşır. İyice motive olmuş (güdülenmiş) öğrencilerden oluşan sınıfın varlığı hem öğrenme-öğretme faaliyetlerini kolaylaştırmakta, hem de sınıfta istenmeyen davranışlar azalmakta, dolayısıyla da sınıf yönetimi kolaylaşmaktadırIn this study the concept of motivation that plays an important role in the management class in, the functioning of the motivation process, the characteristics of motivation, the motivation of students in classroom management, the factors that influence student motivation issues are provided in accordance with the relevant literature. The qualitative research method document review is used in this research study. The literature review was conducted by accessing resources and data relevant to the research. Books, theses and reports related to the study are examined and the data obtained is tried to be integrated in a systematic manner. The concept of motivation, can be defined as the power that gives energy and direction to the behaviour of individuals thereby enabling them to move towards a specific goal. On the basis of the concept of motivation lies triggering, directing and sustaining of the bevavior. The main purpose of motivation is to let individiuals provide effecient and effective operation without pressure or coercion. As long as the basic expectations are met, people will work more efficiently and their motivation will be high. There is a direct correlation between performance and motivation. The higher the motivation of the students, the performance will be that high. Altough it is necessary to have teachers that are planned and programmed and that uses in teaching environment techniques, tools and materials effectively to realize an effective and efficient teachinglearning process in the classroom, it is important that students are motivated and sustain their motivation along the course. The existince of classes that consist of well-motivated students decreases undesirable behaviour in the classroom, eases teaching-learning activities of students, thus facilitates classroom management. There are internal and external factors affecting the motivation to learn. Extrinsic factors are many and varied. there are many factors such as the attitude of the family, their issues, teacher's exterior appearance, teaching techniques, the behavior of the students, the characteristics of the classroom. Without internal factors, external factors often do not provide motivation. It will be difficult to teach Students if they don’t want to learn (Ünal and Ada, 2003: 117). Intrinsic factors are related mostly to the attitudes towards learning and achievement, interests, and to internal causes such as the level of attention and personality traits. Intrinsic motivation is motivation created by the needs arising from the individual himself. The source of intrinsic motivation, curiosity from within the individual, interests, learning needs can be a sense of competence and development. While extrinsic motivation is motivation in order to complete the task or activity there must be an award provided by someone else. Extrinsic motivation is connected to external stimuli. External stimuli are reward, punishment, recognition, pressure, request, to be loved, to be accepted (Erdem, 2012). Students are motivated when they pay more attention to students' course, when they are interested in the class and when they try to do their homework and exams; in cases the students can not show the behavior stated it can be said that they were unable to provide the motivation. A student not motivated in the classroom can show some undesirable behavior. Not motivated or low motivation students show the following behaviors continuing classes not regularly, listening to courses not carefully, directing the attention to their friends or outside events, when facing difficulty in the homework no willingness to search answers, appearing in classes indifferent to the topic, drawing their attention to the course is difficult by the teacher etc. . In contrast, it is possible to say that the high motivation students are willing to learn, they come prepared for the lesson they constantly ask questions, they participate in the discussion, they are willing to research, they have higher energy level. The strategies to motivate students in the classroom are as follows. (Atherley, 2004; actin. Erdem, 2012): Understanding the interest of the students, describing the connection of the subject to real life, helping students improve their achievement expectations of the course, making the course interesting, generating enthusiasm in the students, using prizes, creating a supportive environment. In accordance with these strategies some solutions for teachers to motivate students in the class are suggested below. Understanding the interests of students: Teachers should organize activities based on student interest. If students find the subject interesting, then they actively participate in class. An environment full of fun and adventure can be created through unusual activities in education. In addition to individual work, students learning environments should be planned to facilitate bilateral or group work to respond to social interaction needs. Topics usability description: Students are motivated to learn if they think that the topic to be presented will respond to the individual needs and if they think that their goals are associated with this issue. The topics discussed in school and beyond, should be explained to students how useful they could be. The topic must be associated with the lessons learned before. Helping students to develop their expectation of success: Students are motivated when they are focused on success. Teachers should help students to create goals that can be attained in the short term. Making the course interesting: To present the subject in an interesting and new way motivate students. Continuous use of the same methods and techniques reduce the students' interests. Teachers should use different methods and techniques to represent the issues and support methods and techniques by using the material. Generating enthusiasm in the students: By being the model the willingness of students to learn the subject can be created. Emphasizing the importance of the subject, and behavior, gestures and facial expressions can be used in generating enthusiasm in the students.Using awards: Rewarding is a very effective way at enhancing the efforts of the students to attain the goal. Rather than material rewards, psychological and social rewards should be used. Not only the students showing high success in the classroom should be rewarde but also the students showing a particular effort should be rewarded. Creating a supportive environment: Students don’t perform well when they feel they threatened. Relationship with the students and teachers should be in a way that is facilitating and relaxing. Drawing attention to the importance of motivation for creating a positive classroom climate Ünal and Ada (2003) claimed the following suggestions may give some ideas to the teachers: The subjects that the students will learn should be introduced in a simple framework. Teaching subjects must be perceived by students as an important and meaningful issue. The teacher should arouse the learning needs of students. The teachers should draw the students attention in activities. To ensure the interest on the subject the teacher should explain the benefits of getting knowledge about the subject. Meaningful learning topics motivate students. Teaching a meaningless topic result in memorizing and it will be soon forgotten. The subject of the presentation enthusiastic teachers should be moving. In addition, the course of study in that topic, be referred to the developments in this matter is very important given that understanding, and thus will help ignored by students of the subject. The subject must be told by giving examples, and associating the subject with life and daily events. The subject must be turned to an interesting situation. The teacher can create opposite situations to draw attention. To arouse curiosity and to provide further learning metaphors can be used to describe the situation by benefiting from previous knowledge. Asking questions to the students, directing the research, by accommodating the occasional game type activities students can be motivated. Teachers and students should trust each other. In an environment that was created on mutual trust, love and on the basis of understanding and cooperation the students will have positive emotions about school and learning and their motivation to learn will be increased. Reward and punishment affect motivation. Praised, rewarded students learn easier. The correct or wrong things that students make must be explained to them. Positive motivation and confidence lead to success and negative feelings and distrust lead to failure. In the learning process the activity of the students, observing that they can do something and feeling of being appreciated increases the learning motivation.Teacher, should elect different methods according to the teaching experience, teaching should be carried out with audio-visual aids. Giving the lessons in enriched environment provides motivation. Some minor changes to the physical environment in the classroom also affect motivation. Active participation of the students should be provided, their opinions and suggestions should be considered and their creative offers should be utilized. By benefitting from the feedback and reinforcements care must be taken. The students should be given the opportunity to describe their feelings and thoughts.