Sokakta çalışan çocukların depresif belirti düzeylerinin taranması: Karşılaştırılmalı çalışma
AuthorErdoğdu, Mustafa Yüksel
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Bu araştırmanın temel amacı; sokakta çalışan çocukların depresif belirti düzeylerini ortaya koymak ve bu belirtileri sokakta çalışmayan çocukların depresif belirti düzeyleri ile karşılaştırmaktır. Bununla birlikte bu araştırma da örnekleme alınan çocukların sosyo-demografik özellikleri ile depresif belirti düzeyleri arasındaki ilişkileri ortaya koymak amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmanın evreni Diyarbakır Büyükşehir Belediyesi sınırları içinde yaşayan 12-17 yaşlarındaki tüm çocuklardır. Araştırmada 12-17 yaşlarında sokakta çalışan 82, aynı yaş grubundan sokakta çalışmayan 82 (kontrol grubu) olmak üzere toplam 164 çocuk örneklem olarak alınmıştır. Araştırmada çocukların depresyon düzeyleri “Kovacs Çocukluk Depresyon Ölçeği” ile ortaya konulmuştur. Ayrıca örnekleme alınan çocukların demografik özelliklerini ortaya koymak amacıyla anket uygulaması yapılmıştır. Sokakta çalışan çocukların depresif belirti düzeyleri, sokakta çalışmayan çocuklarınkine göre daha yüksektir. Bununla birlikte göç etmiş ailelerin çocuklarının, fazla kardeşe sahip olan çocukların, anne-babalarının eğitim ve gelir düzeyleri düşük olan çocukların depresif belirti düzeyleri de yüksek bulunmuştur. Sağlıklı bir toplumun oluşması, sağlıklı bireylerin yetişmesi ile mümkün olacaktır. Bu sebeple çocukların ruh sağlığını tehlikeye düşürecek çevresel faktörlerin tespit edilmesi ve gereken önlemlerin alınması önem arz etmektedir.Negative environment and living conditions effect negatively to improve healthy psychology , to improve themselves and to self actualization of people. One of the results of this negative effects is depression. There are a lot of explanation of depression according to the lots of diffirent scientists and theorist. According to Erim , depression is a slowness and dullness of thinking, speaking, acting and physical acting with a deep sadness emotions and thinking feckless and pessimistic (Erim, 2001). According to Beck, there are 3 cognitive problems that occured depression. One of them is , person&#8217;s negative point of view to himself means to feel defective, defeated, feckless and insufficient himself and to ignore himself with this feeling. Second one is to negative point of view to his experience; person&#8217;s comments about his interactions with his enviroment as a result of defectiveness and defated. The last one is the negative look to the future, person&#8217;s seeing his future as hopeless, unclear end and handicapped (Beck, 1974). According to the research about human psychology in the last years , the main reason of the depression is the damage and emotional traumas during the childhood years. As a result of this this damages, personality problems, depression, using drugs, asocial manner can be seen on that people ( Brown and Friends 1991). Depression occured during puberty both increase the possibility of depression on adulthood and commit suicide. For that reason, it is very important to be clarified the reasons of depression and taken necessary measures. On this research, it has been presented the connections between the negative enviroment conditions and people&#8217;s demographic features. That is why, it has been especially searched the connection between working on streets and migrations which is a social problem. Family and school atmosphere is absolutely very important in order to provide healthy psychology improvement and create healthy personality. Working on streets will probably effect negatively to the development of children and development of psychological health. The aim of this research is present how working on streets effect to the children psychological health and present the connection between demographic features of children and depression. For that reason , it has been sellected as sample group from the same age children who works on street and don&#8217;t work on street and it has been tried to present their depression level. That is why, this research is a descriptive search is a kind of hatching. The population of this research is all the children whose ages between 12 and 17 lives in Diyarbakır Metropolitan Municipality. Total 164 children have been taken as a sample, 82 of them Works on the street and the rest of the 82 don&#8217;t work on the street in city of Diyarbakır. The children who don&#8217;t work on street taken as a control group in this research. Because it has been thought to compare the control group with the children who Works on street, these children has been fixed from low socio-economical school without any sellection. Girls have not been taken on this research because there were not any girl who Works on streets. The depression level of the sampled children has been stated with &#8216;Kovack Childhood Depression Scale&#8217;. In order to identify demographic specialities of children who were in sample, a questionnaire has been applied to the children. The connection between Depressive symptom level of the children and working on street has been explained with independent t test. Depressive symptom levels of children has showed significantly differences according to the working on street situation. The depressive symptom levels of children working on streets is significantly higher than children not working on streets. The necessarity of working on street move the children away their warm and secure family atmosphere. It is thought that the reasons of this depression on these children is the problems of the street conditions and the solving difficulties of this problems. The children working on street undoubtedly will see a lot of handicaps, these children assume more responsibility then their age to earn bread for their family and for themselves. Nonetheless, children working on streets are neglected by their family and they are abused when they work on streets, and it is possible to indicate with searching evidence that these children can be in depression because of this conditions. It hasn&#8217;t been seen any research in our country about the connection between depression level and working on street. Nonetheless, according to the research on the age between 8 and 11 made by Yıldırım, there some connections between children depression levels and dailiy problems and taking back the social help (Yıldırım, 2004). Depression levels of children is changing reasonably according to the economical situation of their family. In general, socioeconomical situation of the families getting higher, depression level of children getting lower. One of the main reason of this, it is thought that children need to help their family to earn bread and according to this situation it is thought that children have to work on streets. According to the research made by Yüksek, when the socio-economical situation increase, the possiblity of depression on children decrease. (Yüksek, 1999). According to the research made by Lefkowitz and Tesiny in abroad, it has been found similar results. (Yorgancı, 2006). Depression levels of children is changing reasonably according to the educational situation of their mother. Generally, if the educational situation of their mothers getting higher, their depression levels getting lower. Depression levels of children is changing reasonably according to the educational situation of their father. Generally, if the educational situation of their father getting higher, their depression levels getting lower. In general, if the educational situation of the parents is low, it is possible that their socio-economical levels will be low. In this circumstances, it is thought that, the parents whose economical situation is low, forced their children to work on streets. If the educational situations of parents is low, it is possible to indicate that depression levels of their children can be high. If the parents have low educationa situation, they can be insufficient to help their children growing and to be a good model for their kids. In conclusion, it can be seen depressive symptoms on these children. Depression levels of the children is reasonably changing according to their number of sisters or brothers. Generally, if the number of sisters or brothers getting increased, their depression levels getting increased too. Increased number of sisters or brothers can be releated with the parents manner to their children such as discriminate between their children, depending on the excess number of sisters or brothers, children can be neglected or abused. Research evidence shows that, there is a relations between migration and depression levels on children. Migration is not only a demo-graphic process or moving from one place to another but also it is a sociological situation which has serious effects on person and community. One of the most important results of migration in Turkey is increased working children on streets. Troumatic happens during the migration increased the frequency of psychopathology. Lost of the living city give shape to the psychopathology the same as lost of the loved person and caused to the depressive symptoms (Aker and Friends 2000). According to the searching results, if the socio &#8211; economical levels of the families decrease, the depression levels of the children will increase. One of the main reason of this situation is the children are seen as a person who need to help their family to earn bread and depending on this, they are forced to work on streets. According to the research that is made by Yüksek, if the socioeconomic level getting increased, the possibility of depression on children will be decreased (Yüksek, 1999). Finally, the place where the children go on their daily life, has to be warm and safety environment with their family instead of insecure and indefensible streets. For that reason, it needs to be analised well the reasons of the children working on streets and it is necessary to take all the precautions againt it. Nonetheless, migration has a lot of negative effect on person and community, as seen on this research migration can be caused to depression on children. For that reason it is necessary to take precautions to prevent the migration and it needs to be make practice. The educational levels of parents and excess number of sisters or brothers increased the depression level. That is why it needs to be made parents conscious of having children. So they can deal with all of their children separately, give them good education and give neccessary importance to the development of children instead of having lots of children. This research has been made in the city of Diyarbakır. It is possible to make generalization of searching results depending on making this kind of research.